Oxford Referencing Style - Overview, Guidelines & Examples

Written by

Mark Robert

15 mins read
oxford referencing

When writing a research paper, it's important to give credit where it is due. In academic circles, this is done through the use of citations. There are various citation styles, each with its own guidelines and formatting standards. One popular style used in many colleges and universities is Oxford referencing.

Imagine you have written a brilliant essay, researched your topic in depth and compiled all of your findings into a well-written paper. You submit it to your professor and receive your grade back with a 'C-' circled in red ink. How did this happen? You may ask. It could be that you did not follow the referencing style properly.

You followed the guidelines and Oxford referencing style yet you still failed to get the marks you deserved. If this has happened to you, don't worry - we are here.

This style guide provides an overview of Oxford referencing, including examples of how to cite different types of sources. So whether you're just starting your research paper or putting the finishing touches on it, make sure to bookmark this page and refer to it as needed!

This is a great way to avoid any misunderstandings with your professor and get an A in the class! So, let’s get this started.

What Is Oxford Referencing?

The Oxford referencing style was developed and introduced by the University of Oxford for students in law schools. But it can also be used by other disciplines.

Like most citation styles, there are different guidelines you need to follow when formatting your paper accordingly- which can seem daunting at first!

The documentary-note style referencing is another term for the respective referencing style. There are two types of Oxford citations:

  • Footnotes
  • Reference list

Footnotes are notes at the bottom of the page, and the reference list is a list of all the sources at the end of your paper.

Other styles include;

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How to Cite in Oxford Referencing Style?

When writing an Oxford-style paper, you must include both in-text citations and a list of references. This will ensure that you have acknowledged the sources of any quotes, phrases, or ideas used in your paper. It also shows that you did your research.

Being familiar with the work of writers you quote or reference is important. In the Oxford-style referencing format, you add a superscript number in the content where you quote the work.

Following that, the same superscripted number is used and added at the bottom of the page. By clicking that number, the reader will be taken to a footnote with more information about the quote.

Footnotes provide the reader with additional information about the text. This may include the page number from which a quote or citation was taken. Also provide a definition or explanation of any difficult terms or words.

In the following sections, we will explain the different formats.

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Oxford Citation Style Rules and Guidelines

Just like other citation styles, Oxford citation has guidelines that students should follow when writing papers in Oxford style.

These guidelines are different from other styles. To earn a good grade, you must follow them closely.

Here are the core Oxford citation style guidelines:

The citation must be included in the content and appear with a superscripted number. This superscripted number is usually added at the end of the sentence.

Footnotes are stated at the bottom of each page and throughout the chapters. If they are added at the end of a chapter, they are referred to as endnotes.

At the end of the paper, there is a bibliography. It contains a list of works that are used as quotes or as part of the reading list.

Make sure to follow all of these guidelines when writing your paper in Oxford style. Provide all of the elements into your paper with care.

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Oxford Referencing Website

Many college and university students use online sources to get information. Online sources such as articles, research papers, blogs, and other documents.

It can be time-consuming to read whole books. That's why students usually prefer to read online research articles. They can then use these articles as sources for their papers and essays.

When you are adding a footnote to a website or online source, use this pattern:

Oxford Referencing Website

Following the addition of the footnote, you must also include its bibliographic reference in the bibliography list. However, the pattern differs from the footnote.

Oxford Referencing Website

Students may find relevant sources and content on other platforms such as social media and blogs.

For Social Media:

Before citing anything from a social account, make sure that you've checked it thoroughly that it is relevant.

If you are citing a social media post in your work, you will need to create a footnote using the following pattern:

Oxford Referencing Website

When forming a bibliography for your social media citation, use the referencing style listed below:

Oxford Referencing Website

To create a citation and bibliography for a social media source, you will need to include all the necessary elements.

For Blogs:

Many students use blogs to help them with their work. These blogs are usually written by experts who want to help the students learn.

When adding the blog citation in your paper, make sure that you consider the following things.

  • Sometimes the blog author is different from the editor. Make sure that you have checked everything when adding the name.
  • In addition to adding long URLs, you can also add the homepage URL of the website.
  • If the blog is not paginated, provide information about the respective section of the blog.
  • If not evident from the name, mention the medium of the source as ‘blog post’

Follow the below pattern to make the footnotes:

Oxford Referencing Website

To create the bibliographic citation and entry of the footnote, follow the below example:

Oxford Referencing Website

For Podcasts and Audio Files:

People use audio files for many different purposes. One of these purposes is to create citations. People who study mass and media communication, political science use audio files to help them with their work.

When you are citing a podcast or audio file, there are a few things you need to remember.

  • The details in the footnote and the bibliography should be the same.
  • For podcasts, you should begin the citation with the title of the podcast or audio file.
  • In addition, include the titles of the episode and series when citing podcasts.
  • Only include additional information if it is relevant. Such as the name of the director, interviewer, or person being interviewed.
  • To avoid adding links and URLs, cite the homepage's URL

Follow the pattern below to create a footnote for this type of source:

Oxford Referencing Website

For its bibliography entry, follow the pattern below to make your entry:

Oxford Referencing Website

For Online Videos:

How to cite sources like online videos?

Citing educational videos could be extremely beneficial in a variety of research papers and assignments. These videos are designed to assist students with specific topics in a simpler and quicker way.

However, citing a video or other visual source is different from citing a written source. When you cite a video or other visual source, consider the following things:

  • The information added to the footnote and bibliography entry will be the same.
  • The citation will begin with the video's main title.
  • Include the title of the series and episode number when citing the vodcasts.
  • You can also include the names of the interviewer, director, and interviewee if possible and relevant.
  • If you want to avoid adding long URLs, you can only include the homepage URL.
  • When adding a YouTube video, include the user ID of the person who posted it.

Follow the pattern below when creating the footnote:

Oxford Referencing Website

Follow the pattern below when adding the same footnote to the bibliography:

Oxford Referencing Website

Film and DVD

It is common for students in many fields to cite educational movies and DVDs when they are doing research. This is a way for them to clarify points and back up their claims.

When citing such material, it is important to consider the following factors:

  • The information added in the footnotes and bibliography will be identical.
  • The citation will begin with the film's title.
  • When creating the citation, make sure to include the source type as well.

Follow the pattern below when creating the footnote and citation:

Oxford Referencing Website

Television and Radio:

If you want to cite a TV or radio program in your paper, it is easy to do using the Oxford-style. Many people in the fields of communication and other media-related studies often cite such sources.

To cite these sources, the student must adhere to the format and style of the paper.

  • Keep the following factors in mind when doing so:
  • Only cite the television and radio programme if you have accessed the live broadcast.
  • The information in the footnote and bibliography entry will be the same.
  • The citation entry will begin with the program's title.
  • If available, include the name and number of the series as well as the episode number.

The following is the format for a television and radio program's footnote and bibliography:

Oxford Referencing Website

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Oxford Style Referencing Bibliography

A bibliography and a reference list are different. A reference list is a list of all the works that are cited and used in the paper. A bibliography is a list of all the works that were used to write the paper, whether or not they were cited.

Normally, a bibliography is not divided into subsections. But sometimes teachers might ask you to do it and divide it into primary and secondary sources.

The bibliography entries are arranged alphabetically like the APA and MLA style. The names of the authors are added by the initials of the first name after the author's last name.

Add page numbers to indicate the section from which the quote or phrase was taken. The entries are all indented.

For Example:

Oxford Style Referencing Bibliography

In Case of Two to Three Writers

Typically, these works include research works and research articles. When citing works by two or three different authors, the last name is separated by an ampersand. If you want to add a footnote, follow the steps below:

In Case of Two to Three Writers

In Case of More than Three Authors

In the case of multiple writers, add the last name of the first writer, followed by 'et al.' If this is the case, format the footnote as follows:

In Case of More than Three Authors

Organizations or Group Authors

Besides individual and independent writers, various organizations and government agencies also publish their own publications.

The elements that are included in the footnote and bibliography are the same. The difference is that the footnote includes the page number of the book or journal, and the superscripted number.

For example:

Organizations or Group Authors

For the bibliography:

Organizations or Group Authors

When there is No Writer

When there is No Writer

The footnote begins with the title of the work and progresses to the publisher. It also includes the date the source was accessed, as well as whether it was printed or online.

When creating the footnote, use the following format

Mention the author as 'Anon' or 'Anonymous' in the bibliography entry for such an in-text.

When there is No Writer

Source without the Date of Publication

If there is no date available from the source? Citing sources without the dates of publication becomes difficult, but there is a way around this.

Source without the Date of Publication

Use the following format to create the source's bibliography:

Source without the Date of Publication

Citing the Secondary Sources

Secondary sources are those that the student has not read but have been cited by another author. It appears that the student is referring to someone who has already been mentioned by another author.

Use the following format to create a footnote for this type of source:

Citing the Secondary Sources

Mention both authors when creating the footnote. Mention the author of the secondary source first, followed by the author whose work he has cited.

When creating the bibliography:

Only include the secondary work that you have read in the full bibliographic entry of the footnote.

Citing the Secondary Sources

Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author

This is a frequent occurrence when students are working on their research papers. They discover several works by the same author. However, this does not rule out the possibility of citing all of them.

When attempting to cite such sources, include 'ibid.,' 'op. Cit.,' and 'loc. Cit.' in the footnotes of multiple works by the same author.

Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author

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Oxford Style Book

Print books are preferred by students and teachers over online sources because they are considered more credible.

Remember the following points when adding or citing a print book:

  • Except for the first edition, all edition numbers will be added to the footnotes and bibliography.
  • If possible and relevant to the work, include the names of the editors and translators as well.

When adding footnotes:

Oxford Style Book

Follow the following format or pattern when creating the bibliography:

Oxford Style Book For eBooks:

When working on research papers, students of all academic levels consult these eBooks.

While working on the footnotes and bibliography for the eBooks, keep the following points in mind:

  • After the title of the book, include information such as the book's source, which in this case is an online eBook.
  • Rather than including lengthy URLs, include the homepage's URL.
  • If the source is accessed via an online electronic database, do not include the URL.
  • Include the name of the online database as well as the medium.
  • If the book lacks page numbers, include other reference material such as a paragraph or the title.

Follow the below format when making footnotes:

Oxford Style E-Book

When making the bibliography, make it according to the below format:

Oxford Style E-Book

Citing a Chapter in an Edited Book:

Citing a chapter from an edited book is not the same as citing a chapter from a first edition book. When creating the citation, the edition number is included, along with other information. It includes the main title of the book, the author's name, and the publication date.

When creating a footnote for such a source, use the following format:

Citing a Chapter in an Edited Book

When creating the footnote bibliography, ensure that you have included all of the details in the following pattern:

Citing an Encyclopedia:

Teachers do not accept citations from encyclopaedias such as Wikipedia or dictionaries. So, it is recommended that you consult with your teacher first when adding such sources. If your teacher permits, you can use the format and pattern outlined below to create footnotes and a bibliography.

For the Footnotes:

Citing an Encyclopedia

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Oxford Style Periodicals

Students and researchers use periodicals and journals as educational resources to supplement and support their research and work. Citing articles in these periodicals and journals, on the other hand, differs from citing other sources because they use different citation styles.

Refer to the sections below to learn how to cite these sources.

Article in a Print Journal:

Citing print journals is not the same as citing those that are available online. Follow the pattern below when creating the source's footnote:

Oxford Style Periodicals

When adding the source to the bibliography, follow this pattern:

Oxford Style Periodicals

The page range is included in the citation to provide the pages used in the research work.

Article available Online or on an Online Database:

When citing an article that is available online or in an online database, keep the following points in mind:

  • Cite the date of publication if the journal's volume and issue number are not available.
  • In brackets, include the article's medium, such as online.
  • Citing the main homepage URL rather than any long URLs
Article available Online or on an Online Database

When making the footnote of the online article source, follow the below pattern:

Article available Online or on an Online Database

Aside from online articles, articles from databases are most likely used in professional and academic research work on websites. When citing an article from the database, keep the following things in mind:

  • Put the online database in brackets in front of the database's name
  • Adding the URL OF A well-known site is not necessary

To create a footnote for such a source, follow the steps below:

Article available Online or on an Online Database

Follow the below pattern to create the bibliography of the source.

Article available Online or on an Online Database

For Print Newspaper Article:

Citing a newspaper article is an excellent way to present your research and opinions in a solid manner. This may be unusual because everyone is now mostly online, but it is not something that no one has ever heard of.

Therefore, when citing such a source, use the following format:

For Print Newspaper Article

To make the bibliography entry, use the following format:

For Print Newspaper Article

For an Online Newspaper Article:

Online databases, both local and international, contain hundreds of newspapers that you can read and use in your academic work. Such as research papers and essays. These newspaper articles are reliable sources that can be used for a variety of purposes, including studies and research.

Making the footnotes of the cited sources follow the pattern and style outlined below:

For an Online Newspaper Article

After creating the footnote, use the following format to create its bibliography entry:

For an Online Newspaper Article For an Online Newspaper Article

These articles are also available through online databases. When attempting to cite an article from an online database, follow the pattern below:

To add it to the bibliography, format the information as follows:

For an Online Newspaper Article

For a Review in a Periodical:

Periodicals and journals publish reviews of various books and research are useful for students in preparing their research work. To create a footnote, follow the steps below:

For a Review in a Periodical

Follow the pattern below for its bibliography entry:

For a Review in a Periodical

Oxford In-Text Referencing

In the Oxford-style paper, footnotes are used instead of in-text citations. A superscript number is added with a specific word or phrase to create the footnote. It is followed by a footnote at the bottom of the page.

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Oxford Style Footnotes

Footnotes are an essential component of the Oxford citation style. They differ for different sources, and the student must strictly adhere to the format to design the paper correctly. In the preceding sections, we discussed how to create footnotes for various sources and citations.

However, there are a few things to keep in mind when creating footnotes:

  • The author's name, the title of the book, the year of publication, and the page number are all included in the footnotes.
  • Though the format of the footnotes may differ depending on the source, some may be identical.
  • The format of the footnotes differs from that of the bibliography.
  • A superscripted number is added to the footnotes.
  • Each page will have its own set of footnotes, which will be added to the bibliography.

You will be able to prepare the footnotes correctly and easily if you keep these points in mind.

Oxford Citation Example Guide

The Oxford citation style sample provided below will help you in writing your style paper in minimum time.

We understand that sometimes students need more help. We have tried to explain everything in this blog, but if you still need help, let us know. We would be happy to help.

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