Do you know how to use Harvard-style citation?
It can be confusing, especially if you are new to academic writing. But don't worry, we’re here to help! In this blog post, we will explain how to use Harvard-style citation with examples.
There are many citation styles used for referencing, like APA, MLA, and Chicago. Another commonly used citation style is Harvard. This style is most commonly used for humanities, sciences, or social behavior papers.
It is an easy-to-follow format that does not include footnotes. The in-text citations are similar to APA. Also, the reference list at end of the paper follows more simple rules than other styles such as Chicago or IEEE formats.
Read on to learn more about the Harvard Citation Style.
The Harvard citation style was first commonly used by Harvard University, which is how the style got its name. The Harvard referencing system is widely used for documenting sources in scientific writing.
It has two main parts:
The citation in the text is added in the parenthesis at the end of the paraphrased and quoted lines and contains the surname of the author followed by the date of publication.
The whole references are added to the reference list at the end. The references are listed in alphabetical order, with the last name of the author and the date of publication.
The Harvard-style paper does not have footnotes or endnotes. There is only a list of references at the end of the paper.
As previewed above, Harvard style citation has two parts, i.e. references at the end of the paper and in-text citations. Let’s discuss how to do both in detail.
A reference list is a complete list of all the sources you used when writing your paper. This list includes information about the sources like the author, date of publication, the title of the source, and more. It is important to include this information so that people can find and read the original sources if they want to.
Following are some general guidelines to follow to make a Harvard citation style reference list:
Here are the citation styles for referencing different sources:
|Books||Author(s) surname(s), Initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of book: subtitle if any. Edition followed by ed. (if not the first edition) Place of publication: Publisher, Page(s).|
|Edited Book||Editor(s) surname(s), Initial(s)., followed by ed. or eds. (Year of publication). Title of book: subtitle if any. Edition followed by ed. (if not the first edition) Place of publication: Publisher, Page(s).|
|Chapter in a Book||Author(s) surname(s), Initial(s). (Year of publication). ‘Chapter Title’ in Editor(s) surname(s), Initial(s). Book Title. Edition followed by ed. (if not the first edition) Place of publication: Publisher, Page(s).|
|Scholarly Journal/Article||Author(s) surname(s), Initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of journal, volume number (issue/number, or date/month of publication if volume and issue are absent), Page(s).|
|Newspaper/Magazine Article||Author surname(s), Initial(s). (Year of publication). ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title (edition), Day Month, Page(s).|
|Website||Author/Owner of the website. (Year created or last updated). Title of webpage [online]. Available from: URL [accessed date].|
|E-Book||Author(s) surname(s), Initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of e-book: subtitle if any [online]. Edition followed by ed. (if not the first edition) Place of publication (if any): Publisher. Available from: library database name, or URL [accessed date].|
When you use a quote or paraphrase from another piece of work, you must include an in-text citation.
Harvard style in-text citation will be in the form of the author(s)’s surname, year of publication, and page number(s). The full reference for this information will appear in the reference list.
Therefore, in Harvard referencing, in-text citations are written in the following format:
(Surname, Year of Publication, Page number)
(Smith, 2009, pg.19), or
Smith (2009, pg.19) discusses how to…
APA referencing is a style that was introduced by the American Psychological Association in 1929. This style is mainly used for education, social and behavioral science.
APA reference guide provides detailed information as to how to cite from a number of sources such as journals, books, and websites.
“Is Harvard citation the same as APA?”
Many students most often confuse Harvard-style citation with APA-style citation. Hence, here’s a guide on how to differentiate between them. Understand the differences between both to know which one suits your paper or essay the most.
There are a number of differences between the two styles but their similarities lie in the information they both record.
They both include the author's name and year of publication, journal article or book chapter, volume and issue numbers, and page numbers.
In both of these styles, the references are made in the body of the text and in a separate list in alphabetical order at the end of the paper. There are also no footnotes in both these citation styles.
Some key differences between the two citation styles are as follows:
|Harvard Style Citation||APA Style Citation|
|Origin is unknown but first used by Harvard University||Introduced by the American Psychological Association|
|Mainly used for academic scientific writing||Mainly used to cite education, social and behavioral science-related academic work|
|The list of references at the end is named "References List"||The list of references at the end is named "Reference”|
|If there are more than two authors, 'et al' is used throughout the text||If there are more than two authors, 'et al' is used to indicate the next authors|
We’ve put together a brief Harvard style citation guide with examples for your better understanding. Have a look below and know how to use Harvard-style citation for various sources effectively.
Harvard Style Citation is a writing style that uses an author-date system. This means that in the text of your paper, you include the author's last name and the year of publication. In the reference list at the end of your paper, you include all of the information necessary to find the source again.
This blog post details how to use the Harvard citation style effectively. Use this guide to cite your references properly.
If you're looking for help citing sources using Harvard Style Citation, our team at EssayHours.com can assist you. We are a reliable essay writing service with experts who can help with everything from creating a reference list to formatting citations correctly.
Frequently Asked Questions
No, Chicago and Harvard are two distinct citation styles. Following are some differences between the two: