By: Betty P.
23 min read
Reviewed By: Chris H.
Published on: Jan 6, 2023
When writing a research paper, it's important to give credit where it is due. In academic circles, this is done through the use of citations. There are various citation styles, each with its own guidelines and formatting standards. One popular style used in many colleges and universities is Oxford referencing.
Imagine you have written a brilliant essay, researched your topic in depth and compiled all of your findings into a well-written paper. You submit it to your professor and receive your grade back with a 'C-' circled in red ink. How did this happen? You may ask. It could be that you did not follow the referencing style properly.
You followed the guidelines and Oxford referencing style yet you still failed to get the marks you deserved. If this has happened to you, don't worry - we are here.
This style guide provides an overview of Oxford referencing, including examples of how to cite different types of sources. So whether you're just starting your research paper or putting the finishing touches on it, make sure to bookmark this page and refer to it as needed!
This is a great way to avoid any misunderstandings with your professor and get an A in the class! So, let’s get this started.
On this Page
The Oxford referencing style was developed and introduced by the University of Oxford for students in law schools. But it can also be used by other disciplines.
Like most citation styles, there are different guidelines you need to follow when formatting your paper accordingly- which can seem daunting at first!
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The documentary-note style referencing is another term for the respective referencing style. There are two types of Oxford citations:
Footnotes are notes at the bottom of the page, and the reference list is a list of all the sources at the end of your paper.
Other styles include;
When writing an Oxford-style paper, you must include both in-text citations and a list of references. This will ensure that you have acknowledged the sources of any quotes, phrases, or ideas used in your paper. It also shows that you did your research.
Being familiar with the work of writers you quote or reference is important. In the Oxford-style referencing format, you add a superscript number in the content where you quote the work.
Following that, the same superscripted number is used and added at the bottom of the page. By clicking that number, the reader will be taken to a footnote with more information about the quote.
Footnotes provide the reader with additional information about the text. This may include the page number from which a quote or citation was taken. Also provide a definition or explanation of any difficult terms or words.
In the following sections, we will explain the different formats.
Just like other citation styles, Oxford citation has guidelines that students should follow when writing papers in Oxford style.
These guidelines are different from other styles. To earn a good grade, you must follow them closely.
Here are the core Oxford citation style guidelines:
The citation must be included in the content and appear with a superscripted number. This superscripted number is usually added at the end of the sentence.
Footnotes are stated at the bottom of each page and throughout the chapters. If they are added at the end of a chapter, they are referred to as endnotes.
At the end of the paper, there is a bibliography. It contains a list of works that are used as quotes or as part of the reading list.
Make sure to follow all of these guidelines when writing your paper in Oxford style. Provide all of the elements into your paper with care.
Many college and university students use online sources to get information. Online sources such as articles, research papers, blogs, and other documents.
It can be time-consuming to read whole books. That's why students usually prefer to read online research articles. They can then use these articles as sources for their papers and essays.
When you are adding a footnote to a website or online source, use this pattern:
Following the addition of the footnote, you must also include its bibliographic reference in the bibliography list. However, the pattern differs from the footnote.
Students may find relevant sources and content on other platforms such as social media and blogs.
For Social Media:
Before citing anything from a social account, make sure that you've checked it thoroughly that it is relevant.
If you are citing a social media post in your work, you will need to create a footnote using the following pattern:
When forming a bibliography for your social media citation, use the referencing style listed below:
To create a citation and bibliography for a social media source, you will need to include all the necessary elements.
Many students use blogs to help them with their work. These blogs are usually written by experts who want to help the students learn.
When adding the blog citation in your paper, make sure that you consider the following things.
Follow the below pattern to make the footnotes:
To create the bibliographic citation and entry of the footnote, follow the below example:
For Podcasts and Audio Files:
People use audio files for many different purposes. One of these purposes is to create citations. People who study mass and media communication, political science use audio files to help them with their work.
When you are citing a podcast or audio file, there are a few things you need to remember.
Follow the pattern below to create a footnote for this type of source:
For its bibliography entry, follow the pattern below to make your entry:
For Online Videos:
How to cite sources like online videos?
Citing educational videos could be extremely beneficial in a variety of research papers and assignments. These videos are designed to assist students with specific topics in a simpler and quicker way.
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However, citing a video or other visual source is different from citing a written source. When you cite a video or other visual source, consider the following things:
Follow the pattern below when creating the footnote:
Follow the pattern below when adding the same footnote to the bibliography:
Film and DVD
It is common for students in many fields to cite educational movies and DVDs when they are doing research. This is a way for them to clarify points and back up their claims.
When citing such material, it is important to consider the following factors:
Follow the pattern below when creating the footnote and citation:
Television and Radio:
If you want to cite a TV or radio program in your paper, it is easy to do using the Oxford-style. Many people in the fields of communication and other media-related studies often cite such sources.
To cite these sources, the student must adhere to the format and style of the paper.
The following is the format for a television and radio program's footnote and bibliography:
A bibliography and a reference list are different. A reference list is a list of all the works that are cited and used in the paper. A bibliography is a list of all the works that were used to write the paper, whether or not they were cited.
Normally, a bibliography is not divided into subsections. But sometimes teachers might ask you to do it and divide it into primary and secondary sources.
The bibliography entries are arranged alphabetically like the APA and MLA style. The names of the authors are added by the initials of the first name after the author's last name.
Add page numbers to indicate the section from which the quote or phrase was taken. The entries are all indented.
Typically, these works include research works and research articles. When citing works by two or three different authors, the last name is separated by an ampersand. If you want to add a footnote, follow the steps below:
In the case of multiple writers, add the last name of the first writer, followed by 'et al.' If this is the case, format the footnote as follows:
Besides individual and independent writers, various organizations and government agencies also publish their own publications.
The elements that are included in the footnote and bibliography are the same. The difference is that the footnote includes the page number of the book or journal, and the superscripted number.
For the bibliography:
The footnote begins with the title of the work and progresses to the publisher. It also includes the date the source was accessed, as well as whether it was printed or online.
When creating the footnote, use the following format
Mention the author as 'Anon' or 'Anonymous' in the bibliography entry for such an in-text.
If there is no date available from the source? Citing sources without the dates of publication becomes difficult, but there is a way around this.
Use the following format to create the source's bibliography:
Secondary sources are those that the student has not read but have been cited by another author. It appears that the student is referring to someone who has already been mentioned by another author.
Use the following format to create a footnote for this type of source:
Mention both authors when creating the footnote. Mention the author of the secondary source first, followed by the author whose work he has cited.
When creating the bibliography:
Only include the secondary work that you have read in the full bibliographic entry of the footnote.
This is a frequent occurrence when students are working on their research papers. They discover several works by the same author. However, this does not rule out the possibility of citing all of them.
When attempting to cite such sources, include 'ibid.,' 'op. Cit.,' and 'loc. Cit.' in the footnotes of multiple works by the same author.
Print books are preferred by students and teachers over online sources because they are considered more credible.
Remember the following points when adding or citing a print book:
When adding footnotes:
Follow the following format or pattern when creating the bibliography:
When working on research papers, students of all academic levels consult these eBooks.
While working on the footnotes and bibliography for the eBooks, keep the following points in mind:
Follow the below format when making footnotes:
When making the bibliography, make it according to the below format:
Citing a Chapter in an Edited Book:
Citing a chapter from an edited book is not the same as citing a chapter from a first edition book. When creating the citation, the edition number is included, along with other information. It includes the main title of the book, the author's name, and the publication date.
When creating a footnote for such a source, use the following format:
When creating the footnote bibliography, ensure that you have included all of the details in the following pattern:
Citing an Encyclopedia:
Teachers do not accept citations from encyclopaedias such as Wikipedia or dictionaries. So, it is recommended that you consult with your teacher first when adding such sources. If your teacher permits, you can use the format and pattern outlined below to create footnotes and a bibliography.
For the Footnotes:
Students and researchers use periodicals and journals as educational resources to supplement and support their research and work. Citing articles in these periodicals and journals, on the other hand, differs from citing other sources because they use different citation styles.
Refer to the sections below to learn how to cite these sources.
Article in a Print Journal:
Citing print journals is not the same as citing those that are available online. Follow the pattern below when creating the source's footnote:
When adding the source to the bibliography, follow this pattern:
The page range is included in the citation to provide the pages used in the research work.
Article available Online or on an Online Database:
When citing an article that is available online or in an online database, keep the following points in mind:
When making the footnote of the online article source, follow the below pattern:
Aside from online articles, articles from databases are most likely used in professional and academic research work on websites. When citing an article from the database, keep the following things in mind:
To create a footnote for such a source, follow the steps below:
Follow the below pattern to create the bibliography of the source.
For Print Newspaper Article:
Citing a newspaper article is an excellent way to present your research and opinions in a solid manner. This may be unusual because everyone is now mostly online, but it is not something that no one has ever heard of.
Therefore, when citing such a source, use the following format:
To make the bibliography entry, use the following format:
For an Online Newspaper Article:
Online databases, both local and international, contain hundreds of newspapers that you can read and use in your academic work. Such as research papers and essays. These newspaper articles are reliable sources that can be used for a variety of purposes, including studies and research.
Making the footnotes of the cited sources follow the pattern and style outlined below:
After creating the footnote, use the following format to create its bibliography entry:
These articles are also available through online databases. When attempting to cite an article from an online database, follow the pattern below:
To add it to the bibliography, format the information as follows:
For a Review in a Periodical:
Periodicals and journals publish reviews of various books and research are useful for students in preparing their research work. To create a footnote, follow the steps below:
Follow the pattern below for its bibliography entry:
In the Oxford-style paper, footnotes are used instead of in-text citations. A superscript number is added with a specific word or phrase to create the footnote. It is followed by a footnote at the bottom of the page.
Footnotes are an essential component of the Oxford citation style. They differ for different sources, and the student must strictly adhere to the format to design the paper correctly. In the preceding sections, we discussed how to create footnotes for various sources and citations.
However, there are a few things to keep in mind when creating footnotes:
You will be able to prepare the footnotes correctly and easily if you keep these points in mind.
The Oxford citation style sample provided below will help you in writing your style paper in minimum time.
We understand that sometimes students need more help. We have tried to explain everything in this blog, but if you still need help, let us know. We would be happy to help.
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Literature, Natural Sciences
Betty is a writer and researcher who has a Master's degree in literature. She enjoys working with her clients to provide writing services. Betty is a voracious reader who likes learning new things. She has provided writing services to students of all academic levels and areas of study.
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